2024 AC Breakout Session Descriptions

2024 Annual Conference Program Information

Breakout Schedule at-a Glance is available here.


#infolit and the #ForYouPage: Centering student voices to inform our library instruction

This session will discuss the findings of a research study by two librarians and two student engagement fellows seeking to understand undergraduate information behaviors on social media through a critical lens and to interrogate the intersection of information literacy concepts and social media. Our study centers student voices by inviting them to guide us through their navigation of information on social media and highlight the ways in which they engage with information/media literacy skills.
Presenters: Jesus Espinoza, Student Success and Engagement Librarian, University of Michigan
Naomi Binnie, Digital Education Librarian, University of Michigan
Kristen Leer, Student Engagement Fellow, University of Michigan
Allison He, Student Engagement Fellow, University of Michigan

Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Identify and incorporate social media content to facilitate discussions around credibility of sources through a critical lens.
Learn how students engage with information/media literacy skills while using social media and its potential to inform our instruction.
Consider and connect the use of influencers and social media with ACRL Framework.

10 Tips for Supporting Systematic Review Research at Your Institution

This lightning talk will present 10 tips for librarians in supporting and participating in systematic review research projects at their institutions. These tips are intended to apply across disciplines and all levels of systematic review methodology knowledge, skills, and experience.  
Presenter: Stephanie M. Swanberg, User Services Librarian, Michigan School of Psychology
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Identify the primary steps of the systematic review research process. Articulate the potential roles of librarians in systematic review research projects. Identify free or low-cost project management tools for streamlining the systematic review process.

A Year at the Library: Our UX Journey

An inside and detailed look into the process of interacting with our users, receiving feedback and iterating on the work we do on a consistent basis. We will be talking about monthly UX testing activities we engaged in with our users during the past year. We will be providing a deeper dive on techniques used by our team and elaborate on our findings. Finally, we will discuss the incremental improvements we made to various features.
Presenters: Sruthin Gaddam
Shelby Kroske
Shel Vilag
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Attendees of this session will have a deeper understanding on UX testing methodologies, how to perform them with limited time and resources, and make incremental updates based on the recommendations. Attendees of this session will be able to get an understanding on designing, developing and executing a UX testing plan.


Addressing Harmful Language in our Metadata

This session will focus on how five institutions of differing sizes have started to implement harmful language remediation projects at their organizations. The speakers will give 5 minute lightning talks on their structure and progress with the remainder of the session left for a panel discussion and questions from attendees.
Presenters: Sarah Baar and Jeremy Barney, Hope College
Leigh Billings and Bonnie Dede, University of Michigan
Heidi Keppen-Palmer, University of Michigan- Dearborn
Dejah Rubel, Ferris State University
Nicole Smeltekop, Michigan State University
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Learn actionable projects that attendees could implement at their institutions. Acquire knowledge of other institutions' projects that could potentially lead to future collaboration. Develop an understanding of how language can be harmful in description and why libraries should address it.

Assessing Asynchronous Library Instruction using Project Outcome and UDL Best Practices 

In this talk we will present the challenges posed in assessing asynchronous instruction, discuss the pros and cons of Project Outcome as an assessment tool for tutorials, describe the implementation of Project Outcome in five popular library tutorials, present and compare quantitative data over fall and spring, analyze qualitative feedback from students, provide UDL best practices for tutorials, and present our reflections and recommendations.
Presenters: LuMarie Guth, Business Librarian, Western Michigan University (She/Her)
Dylan McGlothlin, Humanities Librarian, Western Michigan University (He/They)
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Conduct and analyze assessment of asynchronous library tutorials using Project Outcome.
List applications of Universal Design for Learning guidelines in asynchronous library instruction.

Assessing the search skills of incoming residents: Challenges and Insights

Medical students are expected to graduate medical school being able to find evidence to answer clinical questions (EPA7); however, sometimes these skills are not retained. In 2021, we initiated an assessment for incoming residents at our hospitals on their online evidence searching skills. After three cohorts of new residents and three versions of the assessment, we plan to share the challenges we experienced, the ways we've addressed them, and how we continue to make improvements. 
Presenters: Lori Mills, MLIS, GME Librarian, McLaren Health Care
Sheela John, MLIS, Medical Librarian, McLaren Oakland
Maddy Wassick, MLIS, Health Sciences Librarian, McLaren Bay Region

Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.) 
Learning Objectives: Understand the successes and challenges of a hospital system in assessing incoming residents on their library searching skills.

Charting the Research Journey: Kuhlthau's Model in a Graduate Music Course

Sometimes we must look to the past to inform the present. My presentation shares how I used Carol Kuhlthau's 1985 book, Teaching the Library Research Process, to design a graduate music research course for international students. I will briefly explain the class context, describe Kuhlthau's model and two assignments I created, summarize the benefits and drawbacks of using this model, and provide recommendations on applying these concepts to one-shot instruction sessions in other disciplines.
Presenter: Dylan McGlothlin (he/they), Humanities Librarian, Western Michigan University
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Describe Kuhlthau's model in the context of our current information landscape in order to critique current information literacy instruction practices.
Reflect on examples of implementing Kuhlthau's model in a credit-bearing research course in order to develop ideas on how the model can be used to structure information literacy instruction.

Collaboration for Growth - Soar to New Heights With Pioneering Partnerships

For years, librarians have discussed the importance of collaboration with communities outside of the academic library to promote improved institutional change. This session will encourage librarians to  get out of their comfort zone for professional growth by looking at potential partnerships in Correctional Libraries. An MDOC Librarian will discuss a budding project with the University of Michigan?s Prison Creative Arts Project and provide tips for creating new partnerships.  
Presenters: Suvi Manner, Librarian, Kinross Correctional Facility, Michigan Department of Corrections. manners1@michigan.gov .
Nora Krinitsky, Director of Prison Creative Arts Project, University of Michigan. nkrinit@umich.edu
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Evaluate components necessary for a successful partnership with another organization. Describe in general terms the similarities between correctional and academic libraries. Identify research and partnership possibilities in correctional facilities (libraries and education). Learn how to support a Writing Club that was initiated by a correctional facility library.


Coping with Textbook Costs: Listening to Student Voices

How do students cope with high textbook costs? Do text costs limit educational progress? Does access to free readings benefit students in ways beyond financial savings? Why do students so strongly object to access codes and inclusive access fees?  Librarians at a regional university and a nearby community college each recently surveyed students. Come for a discussion of the most interesting results. Leave with resources for conducting your own survey.
Presenters: Kate Pittsley-Sousa, Education Librarian and Textbook Affordability Initiative Coordinator, Eastern Michigan University
Molly Ledermann, Faculty Librarian, Washtenaw Community College
Sara Memmott, Social Work Librarian, Eastern Michigan University

Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Participants will: Explore the difficulties students face in affording texts. Understand how free readings benefit students beyond saving money. Consider student perspectives on navigating course materials, such as inclusive access fees and access codes. Be able to conduct their own surveys by adapting the instruments used in these surveys.

Creating Your Teaching Philosophy

Librarians no longer just provide information, but teach how to use the available information resources. Most of us are not trained teachers and so have not thought a lot about how and why we teach. The Creating Your Teaching Philosophy workshop, a combination of lecture and small group work, will help you to begin the process of writing your own teaching philosophy statement, based on your influences, teaching style, and goals for learners.
Presenter: Carol Shannon, Informationist, Taubman Health Sciences Library, University of Michigan
Session Type: Interactive workshop (105 min.)
Learning Objectives: Understand the concept of a teaching philosophy for librarians. Identify the core elements of their personal teaching philosophy. Articulate how their beliefs about teaching influence their classroom practice. Write a draft of a teaching philosophy statement.

Digital Storytelling: Moving from Special Project to Classroom tool

Our goal is to keep the momentum of Digital Storytelling going even after the grant money for our initial special project has been used. We have noticed that our faculty partners have expressed an increasing desire for 'AI-Proof' assignments. This, combined with a growing emphasis on project based learning, is presenting some new opportunities of Digital Storytelling on our campus beyond our initial project.
Presenters: Christopher Spilker, Head of Library Research Center, Mardigian Library, University of Michigan Dearborn.
Natalie Hagopian, College of Business Librarian, Mardigian Library, University of Michigan Dearborn.

Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Learn about potential for Digital Storytelling in the classroom. Explore ways that Digital Storytelling can replace traditional research papers.

Faculty attitudes and behaviors towards Open Access publishing at an R2 university

Emerging changes in scholarly publishing are expected to have a profound effect on both academic libraries and their patrons. As part of an environmental scan at our institution, an online survey of tenure-track faculty was conducted to understand their use of open access (OA) and their experience with funding open access publication. The session will be used to present results from the survey and to engage attendees in discussion about OA funding at their institutions. 
Presenters: Julia Rodriguez, Associate Professor / Scholarly Communications Librarian, Oakland University
Jim Van Loon, Assistant Professor / Research Data Librarian, Oakland University
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)

Learning ObjectivesAttendees will understand faculty experiences with OA use and funding at our institution. Attendees will understand faculty attitudes towards the academic library's role in funding OA publication at our institution. Through session Q/A, attendees will identify differences in faculty experiences/attitudes across academic libraries.

From Passenger to Pilot: Leveling Up Your Change Leadership Skills

This interactive workshop will introduce participants to organizational change scholarship, followed by rich discussion on change scenarios, and conclude with evidence-based approaches for taking agency over the change we're experiencing. Whether you're in a formal position of leadership or looking to level up your understanding of principles and practices, this workshop presents an opportunity to elevate your relationship to change, leaving you with readings and ideas to inspire your next great change.
Presenters: Meghan Musolff, Director of Strategic Planning, University of Michigan, musolffm@umich.edu
Karen A. Reiman-Sendi, Learning & Teaching Project Librarian, University of Michigan, karsendi@umich.edu
Mary O'Kelly, Associate Dean for Education and User Services, Western Michigan University, mary.okelly@wmich.edu 

Session Type: Interactive workshop (105 min.)
Learning ObjectivesUnderstand select organizational change frameworks/models. Examine how framework/models connect to changes impacting libraries and employees. Identify potential evidence-based approaches to change readiness and agency

How a Latinx Community in Detroit Launched a Large-scale History Resource Project

In 2020, a reference question posed to an academic librarian launched a mission to build a research guide on the history of Mexicantown in Detroit, MI. This presentation will discuss challenges librarians might face in identifying, locating, acquiring, and providing access to history resources covering cultural communities at a micro-geographic level. From their experience in building the guide, presenters will offer best-practices for anyone interested in expanding these efforts to other ethnic communities in Michigan.
Presenters: Ida Martinez, Research Support Librarian, Wayne State University
Thad Dickinson, Distance Librarian, Central Michigan University
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)

Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to describe challenges in finding history resources for concentrated ethnic groups in the state of Michigan. Participants will be able to engage in best practices for discovering history resources for ethnic communities at a micro-geographic level. 

Inclusive by Design: Creating Accessible Library Events

As part of the Michigan State University (MSU) Libraries ongoing efforts to make the Libraries more inclusive, the accessibility team worked to improve the accessibility of our many library events. This presentation will describe our process, detail accessibility best practices and workflows for library events and provide event accessibility resources used and created at the MSU Libraries. Attendees will leave with practical information to make their library events more accessible and welcoming to all. 
Presenters: Austin Deneau, Accessibility & User Experience Specialist, Michigan State University Libraries
Heidi Schroeder, Accessibility Coordinator, Michigan State University Libraries

Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning ObjectivesDescribe accessibility best practices and workflows for library events. Learn what resources are available on events accessibility. Use information from the presentation to make events at other libraries more accessible. Learn about proactive approaches to provide more inclusive events and how to handle common accommodation requests.

Learning from the Past: A Historical Review of Undergraduate Research Assignments

How did undergraduate research papers change with the last major technological shift? After reviewing historical research articles from before and after the introduction of internet search engines, we identified themes among librarians' and writing faculty's research on teaching undergraduate research paper writing and search skills. These themes have relevance today in our changing world of generative AI and can be used to direct our current efforts to teach undergraduate research skills.
Presenters: Micaela Carignano (she/her), Natural Sciences Librarian, Western Michigan University
Dylan McGlothlin (he/they), Humanities Librarian, Western Michigan University

Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Describe how writing faculty and librarians reacted to the arrival of the internet as a new resource for undergraduate research papers. Summarize undergraduate information seeking and use patterns that have prevailed through major technology advancements. Predict reactions to new artificial intelligence tools.

Library of Things as a Gateway to Engagement

This presentation will share insights from the development of Library of Things collections in two community college libraries. Presenters will share their Library?s experience in planning and implementing a Library of Things and provide examples of how these collections have altered perceptions of library engagement on their campuses. Attendees will gain knowledge to aid in the development of a Library of Things collection at their institution. 
Presenters: Jen Fiero, Coordinator of Library Student Engagement, Jackson College
Kendra Lake, Librarian, North Central Michigan College
Jen Mikesell, Library Director, Jackson College
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)

Learning ObjectivesIdentify LOT collection benefits for academic libraries and their communities; describe process of planning and implementing and LOT collection; and recognize the opportunities for campus engagement that Library of Things collections offer.

Listless from Lists: Creating a Database Selection Aid for an Interdisciplinary Program

Learn how to create a tool that helps students in interdisciplinary programs select research databases. Using an example made for a Sport Management program, this presentation suggests an alternative to long, intimidating lists of every possible option. Instead, LibWizard can be used to create a virtual decision tree that asks students a few questions about their research topic, then shows them links to the databases most likely to be relevant?all within a LibGuide page.
Presenter: Jarrod Irwin, Behavioral and Health Sciences Librarian, Eastern Michigan University
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: After attending this session, participants will be able to use LibWizard to create a tool that assists users in selecting from their institution?s databases.

Mi-OER Network-Looking back and looking forward at OER progress in Michigan

MI OER Network was founded in 2020 to serve as a collective voice for the P-20 community in Michigan and to encourage the development and use of open educational resources (OER). This session will review the OER movement in Michigan over the past five years and preview plans for moving forward. We wish to engage all attendees in helping to shape the future of Open Education statewide, including institutions that do not have OER programs. 
Presenters: Julia Rodriguez, Scholarly Communications & Open Knowledge Librarian
Kendra Lake, Librarian, North Central Michigan College
Molly Ledermann, Faculty Librarian, Washtenaw Community College
Raya Samet, Education, Health & Human Services Librarian, University of Michigan, Dearborn Mardigian Library
Lauren Woolsey, Assistant Professor, Astronomy and Physics, Grand Rapids Community College
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Participants will gain an understanding of the current status of OER initiatives statewide, contextualized alongside other midwestern states.
Participants will identify opportunities for growth in Michigan OER efforts and institutional collaboration.
Participants will discuss priorities for future OER initiatives, policies, advocacy.


Navigating Remote Relationships: Building Trust and Connections Among Library Employee

As libraries expand remote and hybrid work options, leaders must learn to foster strong relationships with staff they may rarely or never see in person. This presentation summarizes the findings of a recent study into remote leader-member relationships where the most common participant career was that of remote academic librarian. These findings will provide guidance for library leaders on building trust, fostering connections, and decreasing anxiety with their remote employees during times of change.
Presenter: Vanessa Hills, MA, Ph.D. Candidate, Organizational Change Leadership, Western Michigan University 
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Remember: Participants will be able to recall strategies for building connections with remote employees. Understand: Participants will comprehend the importance of leader-member exchange. Apply: Participants will be able to use communication techniques that foster meaningful connections with distributed staff. Analyze: Participants will be able to examine their communication practices

Overdrive for Michigan Academics (OMiA): Digital Reading Flies Higher 

Discover how a diverse group of ten academic libraries collaborated to change the face of digital reading on their campuses through the establishment of Overdrive for Michigan Academics (OMiA). Curated by the participating libraries, the OMiA collection includes audio books and eBooks, and strikes a careful balance between popular leisure reading titles and high-quality academic titles that support assignments. Learn how providing access to leisure reading resources helps establish lifelong learning.
Presenters: Cara Cadena, Head of Collections & Digital Scholarship / Acting Director, Library Access Support Services, Grand Valley State University 
Mariel Carter, College Librarian, Bay College
Stephanie Davis, Associate Director, Midwest Collaborative Services 
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Learn the process for the establishment of Overdrive for Michigan Academics (OMiA). Understand the collection development priorities and processes of Overdrive for Michigan Academics (OMiA). Discover the value of leisure reading for the development of lifelong learning habits.


Peering into the Crystal Ball: Understanding Library Trends and Community Feedback

For many in academic libraries, a common refrain is about the nature of change, the speed at which it impacts libraries, and our collective being ?at a crossroads.? In this session, peer into the crystal ball and gain an understanding of what the trends are suggesting. Gain an understanding of the learning from national trends and community feedback and see how one institution converted to strategic goals based on community aspirations and themes.
Presenter: Paul Gallagher, Associate Dean for Resources and Digital Strategies, Western Michigan University Libraries
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)

Learning Objectives: Gain an overview of post pandemic library trends as seen from national statistics, and what these may mean for library practice. Hear how focus groups helped to expand and anecdotally confirm national trends, and how emerging topics in higher education have played a role.

Post-COVID-19 Workplace Models: the Culture of Belonging for New Library Employees

This lightning session will explore the challenges and solutions that technology poses for academic library leadership regarding the training of new employees in fully remote or hybrid work environments. Participants will discuss the importance of inculturation and training; and investigate the new models for personnel support, training, and workplace community building where new employees can thrive.
Presenter: Elizabeth Bucciarelli, Health Sciences Librarian, Halle Library, Eastern Michigan University 
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Examine the challenges and solutions that technology poses for academic library leadership pertaining to the training of new employees in a fully remote or hybrid work environment. Explore the new models for personnel support, training, and workplace community building in order to thoroughly train and retain new employees.

Radical Innovations, Radical Implications: Reviewing AI Tools for Academic Libraries

New artificial intelligence (AI) models have moved into the library and have prompted fascinating new ideas and deep questions about how to adapt. Watch Claude craft a passable analysis essay within seconds. Put a DOI into LitMaps and see it do a full citation map. Hear about Packback's AI-assisted grading and real-time writing coach. This session will demonstrate a few of the most library-relevant AI tools, with open discussion about their application, opportunities, and ethics. 
Presenter: Mary O'Kelly, Associate Dean for Education and User Services, Western Michigan University, mary.okelly@wmich.edu 
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Identify at least three artificial intelligence tools and their relevance to academic libraries. Apply the appropriate AI tool for different library-related activities. Critique the opportunities and ethics of the tools.


Read-and-Publish (R&P) agreements: Eliminating cost barriers for graduate students

A student's first-author peer-reviewed biomedical sciences paper often occurs in graduate school. The fees associated with publishing a paper are often a barrier to submitting a manuscript to a peer-reviewed journal. The library piloted read-and-publish (R&P) agreements, which paid fees for all affiliated institutional authors. By absorbing the fees associated with publishing through transformative agreements, students are equated with and included in the academic and practitioner community as they establish their careers. 
Presenter: Elizabeth R. Lorbeer, EdM, MLS, Chair and Professor, Department of Medical Library, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Evaluate the impact of fees associated with publishing in peer-reviewed journals. Analyze the role of read-and-publish (R&P) agreements in covering publication fees for institutional authors. Discuss the role of libraries in supporting scholarly productivity and addressing social justice issues in academia.


Soar to New Heights with the Michigan eLibrary 

This presentation is designed to assist community colleges and smaller academic institutions in leveraging eResources available through the Michigan eLibrary (MeL) to successfully mitigate budgetary constraints while meeting the research needs of students, staff, and faculty.  Participants will have a brief overview of eResources that will be of most interest to those who work with first year students, provide information literacy instruction, and those who manage the library's website.
Presenter: Heather Wood-Gramza, Michigan eLibrary Coordinator, Library of Michigan
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: Academic librarians and academic library workers will be able to: Locate and use Michigan eLibrary resources to customize their website, Identify at least 3 eResources available through MeL that will benefit first year students, Identify at least 3 ways to leverage MeL in promoting information literacy.


Tell me a story: Taking ideas from what to why

Making your ideas a reality requires more than just a good plan. Learn how to use storytelling and marketing best practices to shift your focus from 'what' to 'why.' Unpack the 'why' to craft compelling messaging that resonates with audiences. Pitch ideas to administrators or market your library to busy and distracted students with confidence. The presenter is a marketing manager at a large research university with over 15 years of experience in academic libraries.
Presenter: Sara Volmering, Marketing Manager, Western Michigan University 
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Describe a traditional story structure and how to apply it during idea development. Compare messaging written in story structure with copywriting best practices vs without.


The Undeniable Optimism of Belonging, Confidence, and Connectedness in Academic Library Programming

This session presents a new Framework on Flourishing, an assessment toolkit that defines and measures flourishing in academic librarianship. The three frames are 1. belonging develops purpose, 2. confidence develops resiliency, and 3. connectedness develops potential. The Framework for Flourishing complements the ACRL Framework, provides shared language on the value we add to student flourishing. Participants will be given a copy of Framework for Flourishing along with a rubric to apply to their own work.
Presenter: Kate Langan, Ph.D., Professor and Engagement Librarian, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI.
Session Type: Presentation/panel/moderated discussion (45 min.)
Learning Objectives: -Library practitioners will be able to define flourishing and summarize the value added through the three frames of belonging, confidence, and connectedness as they relate to academic library work. Library practitioners will be able to identify and evaluate ways in which the frames of belonging, confidence, and connectedness appear in their own work. Library practitioners will be able to apply the Framework for Flourishing as a tool to help them assess and discuss the value added of belonging, confidence, and connectedness in library programming.


Up, Up and Away! Soaring to New Heights with Graphic Collections 

Join two Grand Valley State University librarians as they discuss their library?s collection of comics and graphics novels and unveil their plans for expansion into the realm of graphic medicine! This collection has the potential to revitalize the use of the physical collections in a low-usage environment, engage users as both learners and creators, and reconnect students and faculty to the patient-centered compassion that drew them to the health sciences in the first place. 
Presenters: Emily Metcalf, Health Sciences Liaison Librarian, Grand Valley State University
Mary Ruge, Liberal Arts Liaison Librarian, Grand Valley State University
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: Participants will understand the value of a comics and graphic novel can provide to a university collection and leave prepared to assess their own collections
Participants will understand the potential of a graphic medicine collection as an educational and research tool.


You Can't Escape DEIA: Creating space for DEIA discussion

Allia McCoy and Meghan McGowan created a virtual escape room based on Advancing Antiracism, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in STEMM Organizations (2023) to increase engagement with the text and create a depressurized space for discussions about racism in STEMM. We will outline the development and implementation of the escape room, including the challenges and successes. We will demonstrate the escape room and discuss gamification as an engagement practice in book clubs and DEIA discussions.
Presenters: Allia McCoy, Social Sciences/Justice Librarian, Wayne State University
Meghan McGowan, STEM Librarian, Wayne State University
Session Type: Lightning talk (10 min.)
Learning Objectives: After participating in this session, attendees should be able to navigate a virtual escape room. After participating in this session, attendees should be able to identify inequities in STEMM. After participating in this session, attendees should be able to apply creative outlets to work through complex discussion topics.